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Replacement grips are thicker and are often used to increase the size of the handle. Many players, however, prefer to use replacement grips as the final layer. Towelling grips are always replacement grips. Replacement grips have an adhesive backing, whereas overgrips have only a small patch of adhesive at the start of the tape and must be applied under tension; overgrips are more convenient for players who change grips frequently, because they may be removed more rapidly without damaging the underlying material. A shuttlecock often abbreviated to shuttle ; also called a birdie is a high-drag projectile , with an open conical shape: The cork is covered with thin leather or synthetic material.
Synthetic shuttles are often used by recreational players to reduce their costs as feathered shuttles break easily. These nylon shuttles may be constructed with either natural cork or synthetic foam base and a plastic skirt. To test a shuttlecock, hit a full underhand stroke which makes contact with the shuttlecock over the back boundary line. The shuttlecock shall be hit at an upward angle and in a direction parallel to the sidelines.
Badminton shoes are lightweight with soles of rubber or similar high-grip, non-marking materials. Compared to running shoes, badminton shoes have little lateral support. High levels of lateral support are useful for activities where lateral motion is undesirable and unexpected. Badminton, however, requires powerful lateral movements. A highly built-up lateral support will not be able to protect the foot in badminton; instead, it will encourage catastrophic collapse at the point where the shoe's support fails, and the player's ankles are not ready for the sudden loading, which can cause sprains.
For this reason, players should choose badminton shoes rather than general trainers or running shoes, because proper badminton shoes will have a very thin sole, lower a person's centre of gravity, and therefore result in fewer injuries. Players should also ensure that they learn safe and proper footwork, with the knee and foot in alignment on all lunges. This is more than just a safety concern: Badminton offers a wide variety of basic strokes, and players require a high level of skill to perform all of them effectively.
All strokes can be played either forehand or backhand. A player's forehand side is the same side as their playing hand: Forehand strokes are hit with the front of the hand leading like hitting with the palm , whereas backhand strokes are hit with the back of the hand leading like hitting with the knuckles. Players frequently play certain strokes on the forehand side with a backhand hitting action, and vice versa.
In the forecourt and midcourt, most strokes can be played equally effectively on either the forehand or backhand side; but in the rear court, players will attempt to play as many strokes as possible on their forehands, often preferring to play a round-the-head forehand overhead a forehand "on the backhand side" rather than attempt a backhand overhead. Playing a backhand overhead has two main disadvantages. First, the player must turn their back to their opponents, restricting their view of them and the court.
Second, backhand overheads cannot be hit with as much power as forehands: The backhand clear is considered by most players and coaches to be the most difficult basic stroke in the game, since the precise technique is needed in order to muster enough power for the shuttlecock to travel the full length of the court.
For the same reason, backhand smashes tend to be weak. The choice of stroke depends on how near the shuttlecock is to the net, whether it is above net height, and where an opponent is currently positioned: In the forecourt , a high shuttlecock will be met with a net kill , hitting it steeply downwards and attempting to win the rally immediately. This is why it is best to drop the shuttlecock just over the net in this situation. In the midcourt , a high shuttlecock will usually be met with a powerful smash , also hitting downwards and hoping for an outright winner or a weak reply.
Athletic jump smashes , where players jump upwards for a steeper smash angle, are a common and spectacular element of elite men's doubles play. In the rearcourt , players strive to hit the shuttlecock while it is still above them, rather than allowing it to drop lower. This overhead hitting allows them to play smashes, clears hitting the shuttlecock high and to the back of the opponents' court , and drop shots hitting the shuttlecock softly so that it falls sharply downwards into the opponents' forecourt.
If the shuttlecock has dropped lower, then a smash is impossible and a full-length, high clear is difficult. When the shuttlecock is well below net height , players have no choice but to hit upwards. Lifts , where the shuttlecock is hit upwards to the back of the opponents' court, can be played from all parts of the court. If a player does not lift, his only remaining option is to push the shuttlecock softly back to the net: When the shuttlecock is near to net height , players can hit drives , which travel flat and rapidly over the net into the opponents' rear midcourt and rear court.
Pushes may also be hit flatter, placing the shuttlecock into the front midcourt. Drives and pushes may be played from the midcourt or forecourt, and are most often used in doubles: After a successful drive or push, the opponents will often be forced to lift the shuttlecock. Balls may be spun to alter their bounce for example, topspin and backspin in tennis or trajectory, and players may slice the ball strike it with an angled racquet face to produce such spin.
The shuttlecock is not allowed to bounce, but slicing the shuttlecock does have applications in badminton.
Badminton at the 2018 Asian Games – Women's singles
See Basic strokes for an explanation of technical terms. Due to the way that its feathers overlap, a shuttlecock also has a slight natural spin about its axis of rotational symmetry. The spin is in a counter-clockwise direction as seen from above when dropping a shuttlecock. This natural spin affects certain strokes: Badminton biomechanics have not been the subject of extensive scientific study, but some studies confirm the minor role of the wrist in power generation and indicate that the major contributions to power come from internal and external rotations of the upper and lower arm.
The feathers impart substantial drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate greatly over distance.
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The shuttlecock is also extremely aerodynamically stable: One consequence of the shuttlecock's drag is that it requires considerable power to hit it the full length of the court, which is not the case for most racquet sports. The drag also influences the flight path of a lifted lobbed shuttlecock: With very high serves, the shuttlecock may even fall vertically. When defending against a smash , players have three basic options: In singles, a block to the net is the most common reply. In doubles, a lift is the safest option but it usually allows the opponents to continue smashing; blocks and drives are counter-attacking strokes but may be intercepted by the smasher's partner.
Many players use a backhand hitting action for returning smashes on both the forehand and backhand sides because backhands are more effective than forehands at covering smashes directed to the body. Hard shots directed towards the body are difficult to defend. The service is restricted by the Laws and presents its own array of stroke choices. Unlike in tennis, the server's racquet must be pointing in a downward direction to deliver the serve so normally the shuttle must be hit upwards to pass over the net.
The server can choose a low serve into the forecourt like a push , or a lift to the back of the service court, or a flat drive serve. Lifted serves may be either high serves , where the shuttlecock is lifted so high that it falls almost vertically at the back of the court, or flick serves , where the shuttlecock is lifted to a lesser height but falls sooner. Once players have mastered these basic strokes, they can hit the shuttlecock from and to any part of the court, powerfully and softly as required. Beyond the basics, however, badminton offers rich potential for advanced stroke skills that provide a competitive advantage.
Because badminton players have to cover a short distance as quickly as possible, the purpose of many advanced strokes is to deceive the opponent, so that either he is tricked into believing that a different stroke is being played, or he is forced to delay his movement until he actually sees the shuttle's direction. When a player is genuinely deceived, he will often lose the point immediately because he cannot change his direction quickly enough to reach the shuttlecock. Experienced players will be aware of the trick and cautious not to move too early, but the attempted deception is still useful because it forces the opponent to delay his movement slightly.
Against weaker players whose intended strokes are obvious, an experienced player may move before the shuttlecock has been hit, anticipating the stroke to gain an advantage. Slicing and using a shortened hitting action are the two main technical devices that facilitate deception. Slicing involves hitting the shuttlecock with an angled racquet face, causing it to travel in a different direction than suggested by the body or arm movement. Slicing also causes the shuttlecock to travel more slowly than the arm movement suggests.
For example, a good crosscourt sliced drop shot will use a hitting action that suggests a straight clear or a smash, deceiving the opponent about both the power and direction of the shuttlecock.
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A more sophisticated slicing action involves brushing the strings around the shuttlecock during the hit, in order to make the shuttlecock spin. This can be used to improve the shuttle's trajectory, by making it dip more rapidly as it passes the net; for example, a sliced low serve can travel slightly faster than a normal low serve, yet land on the same spot.
Spinning the shuttlecock is also used to create spinning net shots also called tumbling net shots , in which the shuttlecock turns over itself several times tumbles before stabilizing; sometimes the shuttlecock remains inverted instead of tumbling. The main advantage of a spinning net shot is that the opponent will be unwilling to address the shuttlecock until it has stopped tumbling, since hitting the feathers will result in an unpredictable stroke.
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Spinning net shots are especially important for high-level singles players. The lightness of modern racquets allows players to use a very short hitting action for many strokes, thereby maintaining the option to hit a powerful or a soft stroke until the last possible moment. For example, a singles player may hold his racquet ready for a net shot, but then flick the shuttlecock to the back instead with a shallow lift when she or he notices the opponent has moved before the actual shot was played.
A shallow lift takes less time to reach the ground and as mentioned above a rally is over when the shuttlecock touches the ground.
This makes the opponent's task of covering the whole court much more difficult than if the lift was hit higher and with a bigger, obvious swing. A short hitting action is not only useful for deception: A big arm swing is also usually not advised in badminton because bigger swings make it more difficult to recover for the next shot in fast exchanges. The use of grip tightening is crucial to these techniques, and is often described as finger power. Elite players develop finger power to the extent that they can hit some power strokes, such as net kills, with less than a 10 centimetres 4 inches racquet swing.
It is also possible to reverse this style of deception, by suggesting a powerful stroke before slowing down the hitting action to play a soft stroke. In general, this latter style of deception is more common in the rear court for example, drop shots disguised as smashes , whereas the former style is more common in the forecourt and midcourt for example, lifts disguised as net shots.
Deception is not limited to slicing and short hitting actions. Players may also use double motion , where they make an initial racquet movement in one direction before withdrawing the racquet to hit in another direction. Players will often do this to send opponents in the wrong direction. The racquet movement is typically used to suggest a straight angle but then play the stroke crosscourt, or vice versa. Triple motion is also possible, but this is very rare in actual play. An alternative to double motion is to use a racquet head fake , where the initial motion is continued but the racquet is turned during the hit.
This produces a smaller change in direction but does not require as much time. To win in badminton, players need to employ a wide variety of strokes in the right situations. These range from powerful jumping smashes to delicate tumbling net returns. Often rallies finish with a smash, but setting up the smash requires subtler strokes.
For example, a net shot can force the opponent to lift the shuttlecock, which gives an opportunity to smash. If the net shot is tight and tumbling, then the opponent's lift will not reach the back of the court, which makes the subsequent smash much harder to return. Deception is also important. Expert players prepare for many different strokes that look identical and use slicing to deceive their opponents about the speed or direction of the stroke. If an opponent tries to anticipate the stroke, he may move in the wrong direction and may be unable to change his body momentum in time to reach the shuttlecock.
Since one person needs to cover the entire court, singles tactics are based on forcing the opponent to move as much as possible; this means that singles strokes are normally directed to the corners of the court. Players exploit the length of the court by combining lifts and clears with drop shots and net shots. Smashing tends to be less prominent in singles than in doubles because the smasher has no partner to follow up his effort and is thus vulnerable to a skillfully placed return.
Moreover, frequent smashing can be exhausting in singles where the conservation of a player's energy is at a premium. However, players with strong smashes will sometimes use the shot to create openings, and players commonly smash weak returns to try to end rallies. In singles, players will often start the rally with a forehand high serve or with a flick serve. Low serves are also used frequently, either forehand or backhand. Drive serves are rare. At high levels of play, singles demand extraordinary fitness.
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Singles is a game of patient positional manoeuvring, unlike the all-out aggression of doubles. Both pairs will try to gain and maintain the attack, smashing downwards when the opportunity arises. Whenever possible, a pair will adopt an ideal attacking formation with one player hitting down from the rear court, and his partner in the midcourt intercepting all smash returns except the lift. If the rear court attacker plays a drop shot, his partner will move into the forecourt to threaten the net reply.
If a pair cannot hit downwards, they will use flat strokes in an attempt to gain the attack. If a pair is forced to lift or clear the shuttlecock, then they must defend: In doubles, players generally smash to the middle ground between two players in order to take advantage of confusion and clashes. At high levels of play, the backhand serve has become popular to the extent that forehand serves have become fairly rare at a high level of play. The straight low serve is used most frequently, in an attempt to prevent the opponents gaining the attack immediately.
Flick serves are used to prevent the opponent from anticipating the low serve and attacking it decisively. At high levels of play, doubles rallies are extremely fast. Men's doubles are the most aggressive form of badminton, with a high proportion of powerful jump smashes and very quick reflex exchanges. Because of this, spectator interest is sometimes greater for men's doubles than for singles. In mixed doubles, both pairs typically try to maintain an attacking formation with the woman at the front and the man at the back. This is because the male players are usually substantially stronger, and can, therefore, produce smashes that are more powerful.
As a result, mixed doubles require greater tactical awareness and subtler positional play. Clever opponents will try to reverse the ideal position, by forcing the woman towards the back or the man towards the front. In order to protect against this danger, mixed players must be careful and systematic in their shot selection. At high levels of play, the formations will generally be more flexible: When the opportunity arises, however, the pair will switch back to the standard mixed attacking position, with the woman in front and men in the back.
The Badminton World Federation BWF is the internationally recognized governing body of the sport responsible for conduction of tournaments and approaching fair play. Five regional confederations are associated with the BWF:. The BWF organizes several international competitions, including the Thomas Cup , the premier men's international team event first held in — , and the Uber Cup , the women's equivalent first held in — The competitions now take place once every two years.
More than 50 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within continental confederations for a place in the finals. The final tournament involves 12 teams, following an increase from eight teams in It was further increased to 16 teams in The Sudirman Cup , a gender-mixed international team event held once every two years, began in Teams are divided into seven levels based on the performance of each country.
To win the tournament, a country must perform well across all five disciplines men's doubles and singles, women's doubles and singles, and mixed doubles. Like association football soccer , it features a promotion and relegation system at every level. However, the system was last used in and teams competing will now be grouped by world rankings. Scot Kirsty Gilmour misses out on badminton gold".
Irina Khlebko Elena Komendrovskaja. Joycelin Ko Christin Tsai. Nicole Grether Charmaine Reid. Grace Gao Joycelin Ko. Sonia Olariu Florentina Petre. Christian Yahya Christianto Eva Lee.