Carbon dating case study
Because successful interpretation of radiocarbon dates can only be done with calibration, IntCal13 is vital for dating archaeological sites and past environmental change around the world. Those seeking to compare and combine large bodies of evidence, like members of the International Panel on Climate Change, will also benefit from the method.
In this sense the work of IntCal is one of the cornerstones that allows us to use the past to provide insights that can inform policy. Radiocarbon dating has been possible since the middle of the 20th century, but it is only because of improved statistical models such as those behind IntCal13 and its predecessor IntCal09 — also funded by NERC that scientists can now accurately date objects older than 14, years and up to 50, years old.
Protecting the Future case studies. Our plan home Case studies Case studies. Radiocarbon dating curve is the key to unlocking the past and informing policy Through collaboration we've developed an internationally-recognised method for reliably dating items up to 50, years old. Permafrost thawing and the carbon mobilization and respiration resulting from it have been suggested to contribute substantially to the atmospheric greenhouse gas levels by releasing ancient carbon, both during warming events in the past and as a result of anthropogenic climate change in the future.
Studies of this process have so far relied on models and only indirect evidence. To date unambiguous direct evidence for large-scale mobilization of ancient permafrost carbon has not been provided. These data sets include records of massive deglacial release of permafrost carbon as well as evidence for recent acceleration of ancient carbon release.
Radiocarbon dating in archaeology: New examples and case studies from the inner alpine area in Switzerland and Liechtenstein Mirco Brunner Mirco Brunner 1, 2, 3 mirco. While the mountains prevent mobility, the valleys and passes create natural axes for material exchange and communication. The Alpenrhein valley forms the main access to the central Alps and leads directly into the south alpine area between the Lake Maggiore and the Lake Como. In prehistoric times this central axis was used as a settlement area and formed an excellent alpine transit route.
Between BC the region is subject to massive changes which cause a push effect towards marginal, less densely populated areas. The broad range of local resources in new territories and strategically well-controlled areas suggest simultaneously a pull effect towards the Alps.
Therefore Bronze Age is the period for which the most intense prehistoric land expansion can be postulated in the Alps. The Neolithic and Bronze Age chronology for the inner alpine area was always based on comparisons of the material culture from dendrodated lake dwellings from Switzerland or southern Germany.
Until a few years ago there existed only a couple of old radiocarbon dates to prove the chronology for the inner alpine area. New radiocarbon dates from different sites such as graves and settlements give us the opportunity to get a clearer view on the absolute dating of the sites from this area. I am going to present an overview of the situation and a revised chronology of the Neolithic and Bronze Age sites from the inner alpine area and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture.
New approach to radiocarbon dating of paintings Laura Hendriks Laura Hendriks 1 laurah phys. Ferreira 2 Nadim C. Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland In the puzzle of artwork authentication, 14Cdating may play a key role as it can help providing earliest possible dates of when a work of art was created. Despite the achievements already made using 14C analysis in studies of works of art, its application as a routine dating method is still rather limited due to the destructive nature of sample collection.
Indeed, tens of milligrams of original material is usually necessary which thus prevents sampling of many valuable objects. This current project aims at the minimization of sample sizes required for 14C dating of paintings. Following successful downscaling of the canvas sample size requirements for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry , we further explored the possibility of dating the organic binder in the painting itself.
Radiocarbon analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the 20th century. Hence, the sample size reduction now offers feasible sampling quantities, which are comparable to those required for GC-MS analysis - a standard analysis technique applied to art objects. Radiocarbon dating of paint binding medium is a more complex subject and in order to obtain valid binding medium 14C measurements, careful and complete material characterization of the selected paint samples is needed. The selection of paint zones free of carbon sources other than the binder is crucial for the accurate interpretation of the results.
Ideally, paints made with inorganic pigments are chosen, as they are not primarily carbon based. Resulting 14C ages from the binding medium in two paint samples predate the painting by years and correlate with the 14C ages of the canvas. These results illustrate the great potential of dating the binding medium itself and draw its relationship to the age of the support material, hereby offering a new tool in the study of paintings and their origin.
An average observed ratio R CO of By combining the ratio derived using the radiocarbon measurements and the in-situ measured CO mixing ratios, a high- resolution time series of CO2ff was calculated exhibiting a clear seasonality driven by seasonal variability in emissions and vertical mixing. A pronounced diurnal variation was observed during summer modulated by biospheric exchange and vertical mixing while no consistent pattern was found during winter. Deglacial ventilation history of the deep South Indian Ocean: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Climate Geochemistry Department, Mainz, Germany The distribution of 14C in the ocean-atmosphere system gives valuable insights into the mechanism that control atmospheric CO2 CO2,atm levels and global climate over the last glacial-interglacial transition.
Ocean 14C ventilation ages i. They are also linked with the degree of ocean carbon sequestration. A lack of proxy data from the Indian Ocean hampers gaining a full picture on the magnitude and impact of changes in ocean carbon sequestration on deglacial CO2,atm levels. We present a new suite of paired benthic and planktonic foraminifer 14C ages from the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean i.
Sub- surface ocean temperature estimates allow stratigraphic alignments to Antarctic ice core temperature variations, thereby providing independent and robust chronological control. Our new data indicate that glacial deep-ocean 14C i.
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The transition from a poorly ventilated glacial ocean to a well ventilated Holocene ocean in the sub-Antarctic Indian region parallels similar changes in the South Atlantic. Radiocarbon analysis on carbonaceous particles in ice — method development, ice core dating and source appointed long-term emission records Theo Jenk Theo Jenk 1, 2 theo. To overcome the lack of dating methods for these lowermost sections, a new approach was introduced by our group about 10 years ago. Over the years, this method has constantly been optimized, and by now has become a routinely applied analytical tool of our laboratory.
This talk aims at providing an overview of method development and optimization, revealing insight into some of the analytical quality control key issues such as procedural blanks. Validation of the method dating accuracy will be illustrated based on results from independently dated ice samples taken from a variety of regions. Current limitations and uncertainties will be discussed. By application of this 14C-WIOC dating approach, chronologies could be established for a number of ice cores.
Radiocarbon analysis of carbonaceous aerosols — dividable into two main contributing fractions OC and EC — is not only valuable for dating of ice but also allows constraining contributions from their biogenic and fossil anthropogenic emission sources.
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However, long-term records are lacking since measurements from ambient samples only cover a few decades and knowledge about pre-industrial atmospheric concentration levels is entirely missing. The talk will concluded with an outlook focusing on our latest efforts for 14C analysis on the dissolved organic carbon fraction of the carbonaceous aerosols DOC. ProSpect GmbH, Aarau, Switzeraland An interest in direct dating of mortar is growing, as are the chances for cross check of the used preparation methods.
Complexity of the mortar requires a holistic approach such as petrographic studies.
However, at the moment the method developed and applied in our laboratory is solely based on accuracy of 14C analysis i. The fact that mortars, stucco and fresco i. This fraction is then trapped for AMS analysis after being dissolved in concentrated phosphoric acid. Two more fractions each 3 sec are collected to observe the change in 14C ages. Absolute Dating of Mortars — Integrating chemical and physical techniques to characterize and select the mortar samples. Basin-wide compound-specific stable radiocarbon investigation of modern Danube River sediments Chantal Freymond Chantal Freymond 1 chantal.
University of Glasgow 4. University of Bucharest 5. Fabrica de Cercetare, Romania 6.
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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Rivers are the main driver in the transport of terrestrial organic carbon OC from the land to the ocean. Corresponding burial of terrestrial OC in continental shelf sediments comprises an important global carbon sink, and valuable information about past environmental conditions on the continent are stored this sedimentary archive.
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However, much remains to be understood concerning the provenance and characteristics of terrestrial OC exported by river systems. In this study, we perform a detailed basin-wide investigation of the Danube River, the second largest river in Europe. Fluvial sediments were collected at several locations along the Danube mainstem from the upper reaches to the river mouth, as well as from 12 of its major tributaries. Constraining the timing of deep-water ventilation changes and the marine reservoir effect in the Southern Ocean between kyr BP: A tephrochronological and radiocarbon approach Peter Abbott Peter Abbott 1, 2 abbottp cardiff.
The rate and timing of deep-water ventilation can be determined through paired 14C dating of planktonic and benthic foraminifera in marine sequences, however, uncertainty still exists regarding the temporally variable marine reservoir effect, the age offset between the atmosphere and surface waters. This can be achieved using tephrochronology, with common horizons of volcanic ash traced between palaeoclimatic sequences acting as time- synchronous tie-lines due to their rapid deposition.
This allows ages unaffected by the reservoir effect e. We are applying this approach within the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, a key area for the release of CO 2 via deep-water ventilation during the deglaciation that has several upwind volcanic systems known to have deposited volcanic ash over the region. Focused 14C dating of planktonic foraminifera around any tephra horizons will help constrain the marine reservoir effect and in addition dating of benthic foraminifera will provide new ventilation age estimates that are independent of reservoir age uncertainties, which have previously complicated ventilation age reconstructions.
Altered biogeochemical cycles combined with climate change result in global impacts, like increased productivity and anoxia in most freshwater systems Chapman, ; Hecky, Mixing regimes are fundamentally important to lake ecology. However, so far information on long-term dynamics of mixing regimes and anoxic events in freshwater lakes is scarce. With this project, we intend to extend applications of the recently developed lake sediments HSI-VNIR methodology by our group, to examine long-term lake productivity and mixing regimes dynamics.
We are currently focusing on the Swiss Plateau Lake Moossee. We will use imaging spectrometry proxies, quantitative Chl a and chlorins for aquatic productivity and quantitative Bphe a for meromixis Butz et al, Bphe a is a bacterial pigment and degradation product of Bacteriochlorophyll a Bchl a , produced by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Indices will be calibrated with absolute pigment concentrations of selected samples, measured by HPLC.
J Appl Remote Sens 9: Nordlie , Dissolved oxygen and thermal regimes of a Ugandan crater lake, Hydrobiologia, , — Kling , Multiple stressors cause rapid ecosystem change in Lake Victoria, Freshw. Tsunami deposits in coastal areas surrounding perialpine lakes in Switzerland Valentin Nigg Valentin Nigg 1 valentin. These events have diverse trigger mechanisms such as earthquakes, rockfalls or spontaneous subaquatic mass movements displacing large amounts of water. For instance, a tsunami with a height of 4 m occurred in Lake Lucerne after an earthquake Mw 5. Cysat, ; Schnellmann et al.
At Lake Geneva, a major subaerial rockfall triggered a partial subaquatic collapse of the Rhone delta in AD causing a tsunami with a height of several meters Montandon, ; Kremer et al. On the basis of radiocarbon dating, our results will establish a tsunami chronology that will be correlated with major mass-transport deposits observed in the various lake basins Schnellmann et al. This study is part of an interdisciplinary project, which addresses the causes, controls, frequency of this to date underrated lacustrine tsunami hazard and which also includes numerical modelling of tsunami propagation and inundation.
Thus, the information gained from the historic tsunami deposits will serve as groundtruthing the numeric tsunami models developed. Hyperspectral imaging application to perform high resolution quantitative diagnostic proxy-proxy calibration from varved lake sediments Andrea Sanchini Andrea Sanchini 1 andrea. This is particularly true for climate change and biogeochemical cycles. Interactions of both resulted, for instance, in global spread of anoxia in freshwater systems. The reason of our attendance at this workshop is due to the fact that we would like to integrate radiocarbon dating analysis to explore its suitability to perform high resolution quantitative diagnostic proxy-proxy calibration from varved lake sediments.
This is important to infer past climate conditions in temperate zones. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 9 1 , Reconstruction of deep-water circulation in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during the Holocene on the basis of 14C measurements of foraminifera Nicole Schmid Nicole Schmid 1 nicole. Jaccard 1, 2 1. Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern 2.
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Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research The ocean stores, compared to the terrestrial biosphere, about 60 times more carbon Sigman and Boyle, A better knowledge of the processes and timescales of the ocean-circulation is important to make statements about the causes of CO2-changes in the atmosphere. The goal of this study is to assess the link between deep-water circulation and the rise of CO2-concentration in the atmosphere during the Holocene that is unprecedented over past interglacial periods and to analyse what role the Southern Ocean might play in thisconnection.
Local ventilation ages 14 were estimated on the basis of benthic foraminifera C-age deviations from planktonic foraminifera and the contemporaneous atmosphere, and are considered here as a measure of the rate of deep-water circulation at our study site. Although CO2-concentrations in the atmosphere are continuously increasing from years BP, an invigoration of deep-ocean circulation at our core site can only be observed from years. Relying on the assumption that a stronger deep-water circulation, particularly in the Southern Ocean, will release more effectively deeply sequestered CO2 to the atmosphere, we speculate based on our MDQ data that deep South Indian ocean ventilation contributed to the Holocene increase in atmospheric CO2 with a time delay an in the Holocene only.
Radiocarbon dating of Bronze Age in Slovakia: The paper will give a review of chronology and chromology of dated contexts, variety of sample materials and archaeological priors used for Bayesian modeling. Small samples and accurate dating Developing AMS hyphenations with analytical instruments for atmospheric aerosol characterization Julia Gottschalk 14 14 C Reservoir Effects in lakes: New frontiers in high-precision radiocarbon dating of sediment sequences in palaeoecology Insights from new floating tree-ring Compound-specific radiocarbon dating reveals mobilization of ancient carbon from thawing permafrost Invited: New examples and case studies from the inner alpine area in