Dating earthenware pottery
The lighter green and out lining is raised and appears to be a piped slip in the manner of Moorcroft, although less prominent. A G Harley Jones. Manufacturers of decorative earthenware at Fenton. The impressed back stamp on this beautiful mottled brown teapot dates it to around A stylish original art nouveau blue ground vase handpainted with a flowing floral pattern around its body. It has no makers backstamp or other markings and precise age and origin unknown but style and appearance suggest that it is probably continental and dating from early 20th century.
An antique Art Nouveau chamber candlestick by Wardle. Has a sprung steel candle holder which may or not be original. This beautiful little black tea service has a back stamp that was first used in and from the Art Nouveaux Design will date back to no later than For a genuine antique in excess of years old it is in remarkably good condition. Base Width 7" x 7". Each in a streaky and vivid moss green ombre glaze with everted rim over slender extended neck, flanked by two long handles to body.
Impressed mark to base ' E'. A superbly hand decorated Turkish Ottoman Kutahya pottery vase dating from c The vase stands 9. A handsome pottery vase decorated with a carnations. This is English, made around , but no makers marks Size: A beautiful and rare Royal Doulton two-handled pot most probably a sugar bowl decorated with a grazing cow design. Fully hallmarked as shown.
Excellent condition- all beautiful as shown. A large and attractive pewter lidded Jug decorated with the Indian Tree Pattern bearing the Harrods Stamp underneath - hand coloured decoration. Got one to sell? You may also like. Large Antique Faience Pottery Ewer circa Brown peacock design vintage Art Nouveau antique large vase.
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Product Type see all. Please provide a valid price range. Buying format see all. Item location see all. In similar fashion to Longquan celadons , Ru pieces have small amounts of iron oxide in their glaze that oxidize and turn greenish when fired in a reducing atmosphere. Ru wares range in colour—from nearly white to a deep robin's egg—and often are covered with reddish-brown crackles.
The crackles, or " crazing ", are caused when the glaze cools and contracts faster than the body, thus having to stretch and ultimately to split, as seen in the detail at right; see also . The art historian James Watt comments that the Song dynasty was the first period that viewed crazing as a merit rather than a defect. Moreover, as time went on, the bodies got thinner and thinner, while glazes got thicker, until by the end of the Southern Song the 'green-glaze' was thicker than the body, making it extremely 'fleshy' rather than 'bony,' to use the traditional analogy see section on Guan ware, below.
Too, the glaze tends to drip and pool slightly, leaving it thinner at the top, where the clay peeps through. As with Ding ware, the Song imperial court lost access to the Ru kilns after it fled Kaifeng when the Jurchen -led Jin dynasty conquered northern China, and settled at Lin'an present-day Hangzhou in the south. There, the Emperor Gaozong founded the Guan yao 'official kilns' right outside the new capital in order to produce imitations of Ru ware. Characterized by a thicker body than Ding or Ru ware, Jun is covered with a turquoise and purple glaze, so thick and viscous looking that it almost seems to be melting off its substantial golden-brown body.
Not only are Jun vessels more thickly potted, their shape is much more robust than the fine Jun pieces, yet both types were appreciated at the court of Emperor Huizong. Jun production was centered at Jun-tai in Yuzhou , Henan Province. Usually the term in English only applies to that produced by an official, imperially run kiln, which did not start until the Southern Song dynasty fled from the advancing Jin dynasty and settled at Lin'an. It was during this period that walls become so thin and glaze so thick that the latter superseded the former in breadth.
As the clay in the foothills around Lin'an, was a brownish colour, and the glaze so viscous. Ming dynasty commentator Gao Lian claims that the ge kiln took its clay from the same site as Guan ware, which is what accounts for the difficulty in distinguishing one from the other though Gao thinks " Ge is distinctly inferior" to Guan.
Once thought to have only been manufactured alongside Longquan celadon , per its legendary founding, Ge is now believed to have also been produced at Jingdezhen. While similar to Guan ware, Ge typically has a grayish-blue glaze that is fully opaque with an almost matte finish. Its crackle pattern is exaggerated, often standing out in bold black. Though still shrouded in mystery, many specialists believe that Ge ware did not develop until the very late Southern Song dynasty or even the Yuan dynasty.
In any case, enthusiasm for it persisted throughout the Ming dynasty; Wen Zhenheng preferred it to all other types of porcelain, in particular for brush washers and water droppers although he preferred jade brush washers to porcelain, Guan and Ge were the best ceramic ones, especially if they have scalloped rims.
Ming versions substitute a white porcelain body; they tend to be produced in a range of new shapes, for example those for the scholar's studio; glazes tend to be thinner and more lustrous; and slip is applied to the rim and base to simulate the "brown mouth and iron foot" of Guan ware. Qingbai wares also called 'yingqing'  were made at Jingdezhen and at many other southern kilns from the time of the Northern Song dynasty until they were eclipsed in the 14th century by underglaze-decorated blue and white wares.
Qingbai in Chinese literally means "clear blue-white". The qingbai glaze is a porcelain glaze , so-called because it was made using pottery stone. The qingbai glaze is clear, but contains iron in small amounts. When applied over a white porcelain body the glaze produces a greenish-blue colour that gives the glaze its name.
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Some have incised or moulded decorations. The Song dynasty qingbai bowl illustrated was likely made at the Jingdezhen village of Hutian, which was also the site of the imperial kilns established in The bowl has incised decoration, possibly representing clouds or the reflection of clouds in the water. The body is white, translucent and has the texture of very-fine sugar , indicating that it was made using crushed and refined pottery stone instead of pottery stone and kaolin. The glaze and the body of the bowl would have been fired together, in a saggar in a large wood-burning dragon kiln , typical of southern kilns in the period.
Though many Song and Yuan dynasty qingbai bowls were fired upside down in special segmented saggars, a technique first developed at the Ding kilns in Hebei province. The rims of such wares were left unglazed but were often bound with bands of silver , copper or lead. One remarkable example of qingbai porcelain is the so-called Fonthill Vase , described in a guide for Fonthill Abbey published in The vase was made at Jingdezhen, probably around and was sent as a present to Pope Benedict XII by one of the last Yuan emperors of China, in The mounts referred to in the description were of enamelled silver-gilt and were added to the vase in Europe in An 18th-century water colour of the vase complete with its mounts exists, but the mounts themselves were removed and lost in the 19th century.
The vase is now in the National Museum of Ireland. It is often held that qingbai wares were not subject to the higher standards and regulations of the other porcelain wares, since they were made for everyday use. They were mass-produced, and received little attention from scholars and antiquarians. The Fonthill Vase, given by a Chinese emperor to a pope, might appear to cast at least some doubt on this view. Following in the tradition of earlier qingbai porcelains, blue and white wares are glazed using a transparent porcelain glaze. The blue decoration is painted onto the body of the porcelain before glazing, using very finely ground cobalt oxide mixed with water.
After the decoration has been applied the pieces are glazed and fired.
It is believed that underglaze blue and white porcelain was first made in the Tang dynasty. Only three complete pieces of Tang blue and white porcelain are known to exist in Singapore from the Indonesian Belitung shipwreck , but shards dating to the 8th or 9th century have been unearthed at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. It has been suggested that the shards originated from a kiln in the province of Henan. In , excavations at the site of a pagoda in Zhejiang province uncovered a Northern Song bowl decorated with underglaze blue and further fragments have since been discovered at the same site.
In a small fragment of a blue and white bowl, again dated to the 11th century, was also excavated in the province of Zhejiang. In , shards decorated with underglaze blue were excavated at a kiln site in Jiangxi and, in the same year, an underglaze blue and white urn was excavated from a tomb dated to , in the province of Jiangsu. It is of interest to note that a Yuan funerary urn decorated with underglaze blue and underglaze red and dated is still in the Chinese taste, even though by this time the large-scale production of blue and white porcelain in the Yuan dynasty, Mongol taste had started its influence at Jingdezhen.
Starting early in the 14th century, blue and white porcelain rapidly became the main product of Jingdezhen, reaching the height of its technical excellence during the later years of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor  and continuing in present times to be an important product of the city. The tea caddy illustrated shows many of the characteristics of blue and white porcelain produced during the Kangxi period.
The translucent body showing through the clear glaze is of great whiteness and the cobalt decoration, applied in many layers, has a fine blue hue. The decoration, a sage in a landscape of lakes and mountains with blazed rocks is typical of the period. Distinctive blue-and-white porcelain was exported to Japan where it is known as Tenkei blue-and-white ware or ko sometsukei. This ware is thought to have been especially ordered by tea masters for Japanese ceremony.
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Blanc de Chine is a type of white porcelain made at Dehua in Fujian province. It has been produced from the Ming dynasty — to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese Export Porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere. The area along the Fujian coast was traditionally one of the main ceramic exporting centers. Over kiln sites have been identified extending in historical range from the Song dynasty to the present. From the Ming dynasty, porcelain objects were manufactured that achieved a fusion of glaze and body traditionally referred to as "ivory white" and "milk white".
The special characteristic of Dehua porcelain is the very small amount of iron oxide in it, allowing it to be fired in an oxidising atmosphere to a warm white or pale ivory colour. The porcelain body is not very plastic but vessel forms have been made from it. There was a large output of figures, especially religious figures, e. Guanyin , Maitreya , Lohan and Ta-mo figures.
The numerous Dehua porcelain factories today make figures and tableware in modern styles. During the Cultural Revolution "Dehua artisans applied their very best skills to produce immaculate statuettes of Mao Zedong and the Communist leaders. Portraits of the stars of the new proletarian opera in their most famous roles were produced on a truly massive scale. Notable artists in blanc de Chine , such as the late Ming period He Chaozong , signed their creations with their seals.
Wares include crisply modeled figures, cups , bowls and joss stick-holders. Many of the best examples of blanc de Chine are found in Japan where the white variety was termed hakugorai or "Korean white", a term often found in tea ceremony circles. The British Museum in London has a large number of blanc de Chine pieces, having received as a gift in the entire collection of P. Commonly used French terms for 'families', or palettes of enamel colours used on Chinese porcelain.
Famille jaune, noire, rose, verte are terms used to classify Chinese porcelain by the dominant element in its colour palette. Wucai vase, Shunzhi period , circa — Wucai plate for exportation, Kangxi period , circa Famille jaune is a variation using famille verte enamels on a yellow ground.
It used mainly pink or purple and remained popular throughout the 18th and the 19th centuries, also being widely adopted by European factories. Famille rose enamel ware allows a greater range of colour and tone than was previously possible, enabling the depiction of more complex images, including flowers, figures and insects.
Qing dynasty Chinese export porcelain with European figure, Famille rose, first half of 18th century. Double Peacock Dinner Service , late 18th century Chinese export porcelain. Famille rose service with two peacocks over a rock. Pottery classified as stoneware in the West is usually regarded as porcelain in Chinese terms, where a stoneware group is not recognised, and so the definition of porcelain is rather different, covering all vitrified high-fired wares.
Terms such as "porcellaneous" and "near-porcelain" are often used to reflect this, and cover wares that in Western terms lie on the border of stoneware and porcelain. High-fired stonewares were numerous from very early on, and included many high-prestige wares, including those for imperial use, as well as great quantities of everyday utilitarian pots.
Usually they achieved their reputation by their glazes. Most of the celadon group, including Longquan celadons , especially earlier ones, can be classified as stoneware, and all classic Jian wares and Jizhou wares. By contrast, the Yixing clay teapots and cups made from Yixing clay from Jiangsu province are usually left unglazed, and not washed after use, as the clay is believed to improve the taste of the tea, especially after it acquires a patina from long use. There are in fact a number of different clays, giving a range of colours. The pots are unusual in that they are often signed by their potters, which is very rare in China, perhaps because they were associated with the literati culture, of which Jiangsu was a stronghold.
The earliest datable example is from a burial of in Nanjing.
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Elaborately decorated examples, often with a rectangular body, were exported to Europe from the 18th century, and these and pots for local use often had poems inscribed on them. As well as teaware and desk objects such as brush-rests , fruit and other natural shapes were modelled as ornaments. Production continues today, generally using simpler shapes. Chinese potters have a long tradition of borrowing design and decorative features from earlier wares. Whilst ceramics with features thus borrowed might sometimes pose problems of provenance , they would not generally be regarded as either reproductions or fakes.
However, fakes and reproductions have also been made at many times during the long history of Chinese ceramics and continue to be made today in ever-increasing numbers. The most widely known test is the thermoluminescence test, or TL test, which is used on some types of ceramic to estimate, roughly, the date of last firing. Thermoluminescence dating is carried out on small samples of pottery drilled or cut from the body of a piece, which can be risky and disfiguring. For this reason, the test is rarely used for dating finely potted, high-fired ceramics. TL testing cannot be used at all on some types of ceramics, particularly high-fired porcelain.
Water jar from the Neolithic period, Yangshao culture ca. Painted pot with frog motifs, Majiayao culture — BC. Painted pot of Majiayao culture — BC. Black pottery goblet of the Late Neolithic period from the Longshan culture, dated ca. White pottery pitcher from the Shandong Longshan culture , — BC. White pottery pot with geometric design, Shang dynasty — BC. A pottery bell from the Warring States period — BC. A painted pottery dou vessel with a dragon design from the Warring States period BC.
Ceramic sculptures with polychrome , from the 2nd century BC, Han dynasty. An earthenware goose pourer with lacquerware paint designs, Western Han dynasty , late 3rd century BC to early 1st century AD. This type of stoneware is still being made but was not made prior to Second, the meaning of the shape…. The shape of the object also helps to determine the date in a general way.
If the object has a smaller diameter base than its waist, it was made before If the base and the waist are the same diameter, forming a cylinder, the pot was made after Some writers felt that various shapes can be used to refine the date of small bottom pots but this is false.
Japanese pottery and porcelain
Finally, pot terminology…Pots with small openings which can be stopped with a cork or a corncob and have a single ring handle are called jugs in America. Sometimes they are very large, have two handles and an opening at the bottom for a spigot. These are water coolers.